Apabahukam is a disease condition that locally affects the shoulder joint, with restriction of joint as the classical symptoms. As there are a lot of clinical conditions like Rotator cuff tendinitis, Bicipital tendinitis, Cervical spondylosis, Osteoarthritis of shoulder, or Adhesive capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder), the symptoms match mostly to Frozen shoulder. In a frozen shoulder there will be pain along with stiffness on the joint even without an intrinsic disease.
The disease can also be seen associated with Diabetes Mellitus, Myocardial Infarction etc.
Apabahuka has been explained under the Kevala Vatika disease, where the aggravated vata gets trapped in the joint which causes restriction of the movements. Classically, the disease is characterized with stiffness or restriction of the hand movements, whereas clinically restriction is seen associated with pain. The intensity of the pain can be severe enough to disturb the sleep.
Location or Site of manifestation:
The disease has its localisation in the Amsa-Moola (The Shoulder joint) which causes sosha of the sira, snayu and Kandara (The adjacent soft tissues). The Amsa sandhi (Shoulder Joint) has two joints involved, The acromioclavicular joint and the glenohumeral joint. The glenohumeral joint is a highly moveable ball-and-socket synovial joint that is stabilized by the rotator cuff muscles, which guides all movements of the forearm. Due to its wide range of movements it has been considered as a Marma (Vital Point). As it is one of the most mobile joints in the body, the vulnerability of diseases is also high in this disease.
When there is a pathophysiology, there will be excessive scar tissue or adhesions across the glenohumeral joint, causing pain with stiffness and limitation in the movements of the joints.